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About Autism

Kids with autism (also called autism spectrum disorder) have differences in the way their brains develop and process information. They might have language delays or trouble communicating with others, perform certain unusual or repetitive behaviors, or have difficulties learning in school.

No two cases of autism are exactly alike — depending on a child's condition, symptoms can be severe and interfere with everyday tasks or they can be mild and cause few problems. Doctors and scientists call this range of symptoms a "spectrum."

In the past, doctors didn't know a lot about autism. But that's changing. New research has made it easier for doctors to diagnose and begin treating kids earlier than ever before. With early and appropriate treatment that usually includes speech and behavioral therapy, kids with autism can have the opportunity to reach their best potential.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs of autism are usually recognizable by 2 or 3 years of age. But because symptoms are sometimes hard to notice, it can take longer to fully identify autism. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that pediatricians look for signs that suggest the possibility of autism at every visit. Formal autism screening can begin as early as 16 months of age.

Signs of autism can include:

  • trouble interacting, playing with, or relating to others
  • having little or brief eye contact with others
  • not pointing to objects to call attention to them
  • unusual or repetitive movements, such as hand flapping, spinning, or tapping
  • delays in developmental milestones or loss of milestones already achieved
  • playing with a toy in a way that seems odd or repetitive
  • not using or understanding language as a child that age typically would
  • not exploring surroundings with curiosity or interest (a child seeming to be in his or her "own world")

Kids who show a pattern of these behaviors should be evaluated by a doctor with expertise in developmental disorders, such as a developmental pediatrician, pediatric neurologist, pediatric psychologist, or psychiatrist.

To diagnose autism, doctors will talk to parents and spend time interacting with the child. They might use parent questionnaires or have a child evaluated to test abilities and behaviors related to learning, communication, and play. While brain scans are rarely needed, they can be used to help rule out other conditions. At this time, there is no brain scan or no blood test to diagnose autism.


Causes of autism are not yet fully understood, but scientists believe that genes and environmental factors are involved. In fact, new research has found that genes play a major role; there's a 30% chance of a child developing autism if a sibling has it.

But this doesn't necessarily mean that autism is passed down from parent to child. Some studies suggest that kids with a genetic risk or predisposition to autism might develop it when they are exposed to something (yet unknown) in the environment.

Other studies have suggested that autism could be caused by viruses, allergies, or vaccines. But none of these theories have been scientifically proven. In fact, the vast majority of scientific studies on vaccines have found no link between vaccines — or any of their ingredients — and autism. The fraudulent 1998 study that suggested such a link was later retracted by the medical journal that originally published it and the study's author was stripped of his medical license.

It's also important to remember that autism is not caused by parenting or bad experiences. Earlier theories that suggested this have been disproved.


Although there's no cure for autism, early intervention and therapy can help kids develop skills and achieve their best potential. Therapy is tailored to each child's individual needs and may include behavioral, educational, speech, and occupational therapies.

The goal of therapy is to help kids learn how to:

  • be safe and take care of their bodies
  • communicate with peers and caregivers
  • play with others and cooperate with social rules
  • minimize unwanted behaviors, like repetitive or aggressive behaviors

Research suggests that a minimum of 25 hours a week of social, behavioral, play, speech, and other developmental therapies can help maximize a child's potential. Sometimes medications are also used to treat certain symptoms, like aggression toward oneself or others, problems of inattention, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and mood swings.

While there's little research to support the use of non-traditional or alternative therapies — such as diet modification, supplements, music, art, and animal therapies — some families have reported significant benefits from them.

Before Age 3

Before age 3, children receive therapy through their home state's early intervention program. Families work together with therapists to develop an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP), which outlines the types of therapy to be given and their goals. A team of therapists (which may include behavioral and speech therapists and special education teachers) provides in-home therapy.

The goal of treatment is to help kids get to the point where they can learn in a regular classroom and become as independent as possible in daily life.

After Age 3

Kids ages 3-5 are entitled to free preschool services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Educational and therapeutic programs are offered through local school districts or other educational facilities — either at home or in a classroom. Some areas also offer parent education to help parents with the challenges of raising a child with developmental disabilities.

Once kids reach kindergarten, parents can ask to set up an individualized education plan (IEP) through the local school district. An IEP can include educational as well as behavioral, social, and self-care goals.

Helping Your Child

Once you discover your child may have a developmental delay, it's important to get help. Even before a formal diagnosis of autism is made, your child can begin early intervention to address language and other delays.

Unfortunately, treatment can be expensive and often is not reimbursed by insurance companies. But help is out there if you look in the right places — for instance, federally funded grants that cover the costs of autism services or research studies that diagnose, evaluate, and treat kids with autism.

To find out what's available to your child, contact:

  • your doctor or health care system
  • your township or county department
  • health and education departments
  • churches and other charitable organizations
  • local chapters of autism advocacy groups (like Autism Speaks)

Reviewed by: Raphael A. Bernier, PhD
Date reviewed: January 2014

Related Resources

OrganizationAutism Speaks Autism Speaks is committed to facilitating research that will uncover the causes of autism, develop effective biomedical treatments, and hasten the discovery of a cure.
OrganizationAmerican Speech-Language-Hearing Association This group provides services for professionals in audiology, speech-language pathology, and speech and hearing science, and advocates for people with communication disabilities.
OrganizationAutism Research Institute (ARI) The ARI is a nonprofit organization devoted to conducting research on the causes of autism and on methods of preventing, diagnosing, and treating autism and other severe behavioral disorders of childhood. Contact them at: Autism Research Institute
4182 Adams Ave.
San Diego, CA 92116 Fax: (619) 563-6840
OrganizationEaster Seals Easter Seals is a nonprofit, community-based health and human services provider dedicated to helping children and adults with disabilities and special needs gain greater independence.
OrganizationAutism Society of America (ASA) The mission of ASA is to promote lifelong access and opportunities for persons within the autism spectrum and their families.
OrganizationOffice of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, U.S. Department of Education This Web site provides information and lists programs dedicated to educating children with special needs.
Web SiteCDC: Learn the Signs. Act Early The CDC has launched a campaign to help parents recognize the milestones kids should reach in how they play, learn, speak, and act, between birth and the time they are 5 years old. If parents learn the milestones, they'll be able to spot any developmental problems, and get their kids any help they may need.
OrganizationIndividuals with Disabilities Education Act The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation.

Related Articles

Asperger Syndrome Asperger syndrome (AS) is part of a group of diagnoses called "autistic spectrum disorders" - developmental disabilities that include autism and other disorders with similar characteristics.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder All kids have worries and doubts. But some have obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in which their worries compel them to behave in certain ways over and over again.
Delayed Speech or Language Development Knowing what's "normal" and what's not in speech and language development can help you figure out if you should be concerned or if your child is right on schedule.
Raising a Child With Autism: Paige and Iain's Story When their son was diagnosed with autism at age 3, Paige and Iain were devastated. Since then, Lochlan has gotten the treatment and services he needs, and is learning about the world around him. Read their story.
Speech-Language Therapy Working with a certified speech-language pathologist can help a child with speech or language difficulties.
Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) Some kids may be eligible for individualized education programs in public schools, free of charge. Understanding how to access these services can help you be an effective advocate for your child.

Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.

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