First Aid: Head Lice

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First Aid

A head louse is a tiny, wingless insect that can attach to a person's hair, where it feeds on tiny amounts of blood drawn from the scalp. Lice, while annoying, aren't dangerous and they don't spread disease.

Signs and Symptoms

  • severe itching of the scalp
  • nits (tiny oval specks of grey or yellow-white on the hair shaft)
  • lice (reddish brown tiny insects on the hair shaft)
  • small red bumps on the scalp
  • a rash on the scalp, with crusting and oozing (if severe)
  • swollen lymph glands in the neck

What to Do

A doctor will recommend a medicated rinse or lotion to kill the lice. It's important to follow the directions for these products exactly because applying too much or too often can be harmful.

Here are some ways to get rid of lice and their eggs around the house:

  • Check everyone in the house for lice and seek treatment if necessary.
  • Wash all bed linens and clothing in very hot water, then put them in the hot cycle of the dryer for at least 20 minutes.
  • Dry clean any clothing, bed linens, and stuffed animals that aren't machine washable.
  • Vacuum carpets and any cloth-covered furniture in your home or car.
  • Discard hair-care items or soak them in rubbing alcohol for 1 hour, then wash them in hot soapy water.
  • While not necessary, you can remove nits from hair with a fine-tooth comb.

Seek Medical Care

If Your Child:

  • shows any signs of having lice
  • is constantly scratching or complains of itches that don't go away
  • has scratched the scalp to the point of redness, swelling, or visible pus

Think Prevention!

You can help protect your kids from head lice by teaching them to:

  • avoid head-to-head contact with other children
  • not share combs, brushes, hair ties, hats, etc.
  • not lie on bedding, pillows, and carpets that have recently been used by someone with lice

Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD
Date reviewed: April 2014



Related Resources

OrganizationCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) The CDC (the national public health institute of the United States) promotes health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.
Web SiteHeadLice.Org for Kids This site, run by the National Pediculosis Association, is designed to help kids understand lice. It has games, animation, and frequently asked questions about lice.


Related Articles

Are Head Lice Becoming Resistant to Medications? Find out what the experts have to say.
Pubic Lice Pubic lice are six-legged creatures that infest the hair in the pubic area. Pubic lice infestation is considered a sexually transmitted disease (STD), but it can be contracted in other ways.
Head Lice Lice aren't dangerous and they don't spread disease, but they are contagious, annoying, and sometimes hard to get rid of. Learn more about this common childhood problem and how to get rid of those pesky little bugs.




Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.

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